Interactive Agenda

Algorithms, Bootstrapping and Cross-Validation: The ABCs of Machine Learning for Epidemiologists
Dec 4 @ 1:00 pm – 5:00 pm

Session Co-Chair: Jeanette Stingone, Columbia University
Session Co-Chair: Eric Lofgren, Washington State University

Machine learning, broadly defined as analytic techniques that fit models algorithmically by adapting to patterns in data, is growing in use within epidemiology. This workshop will explore how epidemiologists can use machine learning to advance their research and practice, while reflecting on some of the ethical and scientific considerations that arise from the use of data-driven techniques. The workshop will use a flipped classroom format to maximize time for discussion and programming activities during the SER workshop. Prior to the workshop, attendees will be sent 2-3 readings and links to 2-3 30 minute videos. These videos will introduce key terms, commonly-used algorithms, evaluation techniques and examples of epidemiologic studies that incorporated machine learning. During the workshop, these topics will be reinforced through a review of concepts, guided discussions, presentations of case-studies and demonstrations of analytic pipelines using R/R Studio. Attendees will work individually and in small groups on hands-on programming exercises of publicly available data, while also discussing the ethical and scientific challenges presented by different research scenarios. At the conclusion of this workshop, attendees will be able to discuss scenarios where machine learning can benefit epidemiologic analysis, analyze public health data using commonly-used algorithms, and feel empowered to pursue additional training or collaborate with scientists with expertise in machine learning.

Estimation and interpretation: Introduction to parametric and semi-parametric estimators for causal inference
Dec 7 @ 12:00 pm – 4:00 pm

Session Co-Chair: Laura B. Balzer, University of Massachusetts
Session Co-Chair: Jennifer Ahern, University of California, Berkeley

This workshop will introduce participants to the Causal Roadmap for epidemiologic questions: 1) clear statement of the scientific question, 2) definition of the causal model and parameter of interest, 3) assessment of identifiability – that is, linking the causal effect to a parameter estimable from the observed data distribution, 4) choice and implementation of estimators including parametric and semi-parametric, and 5) interpretation of findings. The focus will be on estimation with a simple substitution estimator (parametric G-computation), inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW), and targeted maximum likelihood estimation (TMLE) with Super Learner. Participants will work through the Roadmap using an applied example and implement these estimators in R during the workshop session.

Causal inference for multiple time-point (longitudinal) exposures
Dec 10 @ 12:00 pm – 4:00 pm

Session Co-Chair: Laura B. Balzer, University of Massachusetts
Session Co-Chair: Maya L. Petersen, University of California at Berkeley

This workshop applies the Causal Roadmap to estimate the causal effects with multiple intervention variables, such as the cumulative effect of an exposure over time, controlled direct effects, and effects on survival-type outcomes with right-censoring. We will cover longitudinal causal models, identification in the presence of time-dependent confounding; and estimation of joint treatment effects using G-computation, inverse probability weighting (IPW), and targeted maximum likelihood estimation (TMLE). During the workshop session, participants will work through the Roadmap using an applied example and implement these estimators with the ltmle R package. Prior training in causal inference in a single time-point setting is recommended, but not required.

E-values, Unmeasured Confounding, Measurement Error, and Selection Bias
Dec 11 @ 1:00 pm – 5:00 pm

Session Co-Chair: Maya Mathur, Stanford University
Session Co-Chair: Louisa Smith, Harvard University

The workshop will consider sensitivity analysis for different forms of bias in epidemiology. It will begin with confounding, focusing on a new metric to evaluate sensitivity to unmeasured confounding called the E-value. The E-value is the minimum strength of association, on the risk ratio scale, that an unmeasured confounder would need to have with both the exposure and the outcome, conditional on the measured covariates, to fully explain away the exposure-outcome association. E-value calculations for risk ratios, outcomes differences, odds ratios, and hazard ratios will be discussed. The E-value can be calculated in a straightforward way from study results and its use could help unify assessment of unmeasured confounding. The workshop will proceed by describing very recent analogous easy-to-implement approaches to also address differential measurement error and selection bias. We will conclude by presenting recent extensions allowing sensitivity analysis for all three forms of bias. The methods, taken as a whole, will constitute a straightforward comprehensive approach to bias analysis.

Breakfast with the Experts (*Pre-Registration Required)
Dec 16 @ 7:00 am – 7:45 am

Session Co-Chair: Precious Esie, Columbia University
Session Co-Chair: Matthew Mietchen, Washington State University

Senior colleagues will lead discussion groups on topics pertaining to their areas of expertise, a specific topic in epidemiology, or potential advice on career development and advancement. These sessions provide an excellent opportunity for you to meet the experts of our science. REGISTRATION REQUIRED.

Click here to register.

Jessica Chubak, Kaiser Permanente
Hailey Banack, University of Buffalo
Yvette Cozier, Boston University
Maimuna Majumder, Harvard Medical School

Click here to register.

Plenary Session 1
Dec 16 @ 8:00 am – 9:45 am

Session Chair: Enrique Schisterman, NIH

Ibram Kendi, Boston University
Keynote Speaker
(Live Q&A Moderated by Chanelle Howe and Martha Werler)

Moyses Szklo, Johns Hopkins University
Distinguished Service to SER Award Winner

Martha Werler, Boston University
Presidential Address

Caution and Creativity: Maximizing the Value of Electronic Health Record and Claims Data in Epidemiologic Research
Dec 16 @ 10:15 am – 11:45 am

Session Co-Chair: Nrupen Bhavsar, Duke University
Session Co-Chair: Lauren Cain, AbbVie

The volume & velocity of electronic health record (EHR) and claims data is immense; however, there are concerns about the veracity of these data. It is increasingly common for EHR and claims data to be used in epidemiologic research for cohort selection, disease surveillance, prediction and inferential research. These data are also used for regulatory purposes; the FDA recently released guidance for use of these data for drug, biologic, and device approval. A better understanding of the methodological challenges of these data is needed. The speakers in this session will provide a brief overview of how these data inform their work and the cautions/pitfalls/solutions they have encountered when using these data. Topics to be discussed include data linkage, missing data, validity of EHR/claims as compared to cohort data, and applications for environmental, aging, and social epidemiology. A significant portion of time will be allocated for discussion with panel and attendees.

Ann Marie Navar, Duke University
“Beyond Babel: Combining data across health systems and EHR vendors”

Bryan James, Rush University
“Only Built 4 Data Links: Medicare claims linked to cohort data in aging research”

Katherine Moon, Johns Hopkins University
“EHR^2: Electronic health records for environmental health research”

Annemarie Hirsch, Department of Population Health Sciences, Geisinger
“A look under the hood: Social determinants in the EHR data”

Colin Anderson-Smits, Takeda Pharmaceuticals
“Expediting innovation: Real world data for regulatory submissions”

Likely biased but possibly useful: the implications of conditioning on future events for interpretation of effects in perinatal epidemiology
Dec 16 @ 10:15 am – 11:45 am

Session Co-Chair: Mollie Wood, Harvard University
Session Co-Chair: Dominique Heinke, Massachusetts Department of Health

Perinatal epidemiologists often condition on the occurrence of pregnancy or live birth when studying the effects of exposures occurring before or during gestation. Consequently, selection occurs at multiple points from exposure to outcome: detecting pregnancy, identifying pregnancy losses, and correctly classifying outcomes (often only observable in live births). This creates challenges for (1) validly estimating causal effects of exposures on outcomes, and (2) using these estimates to generate practical information that corresponds to choices that people face before and during pregnancy. The target trial approach is instructive, but highlights problems in interpreting findings. For example, if we are interested in effects of pre-pregnancy weight loss on birth outcomes (e.g. C-section, childhood overweight), we can fit a regression model for birth outcomes comparing women who lost weight prior to pregnancy with those who did not, conditioning on getting pregnant. This analysis translates to a trial intervention of “weight loss plus pregnancy” compared to “no weight loss plus pregnancy”, which would be impossible to implement. This is both because pregnancy cannot be guaranteed but also because pre-pregnancy weight loss may affect the ability to become pregnant, complicating interpretation. In this session, we explore the implications for conditioning on future events in perinatal epidemiologic research, and the implications of conditioning on pregnancy or offspring survival.

Matt Fox, Boston University

Mollie Wood, Harvard University
“Identifying Pregnancy Intention in Administrative and Registry Data”

Jack Wilkinson, University of Manchester
“Outcome Truncation in Assisted Reproduction Trials: Does it Matter in Practice?”

Dominique Heinke, Massachusetts Department of Health
“In Perinatal Epi, You Can’t Always get the Unbiased Estimate that you Want. But You Might Find the Information you Need.”

Elizabeth Suarez, Harvard Medical School
“Competing risks in perinatal pharmacoepidemiology: are live-birth cohorts a problem?”

Olga Basso, McGill University

Jonathan Snowden, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland

Living and Dying in Rural Areas
Dec 16 @ 10:15 am – 11:45 am

Session Co-Chair: Katherine Ahrens, University of Southern Maine
Session Co-Chair: Lauren Rossen, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Rural residents in the US are at higher risk for the five leading causes of death (CDC, 2017) and experience shorter life expectancy (Singh, 2014) as compared with urban residents. While rural residents are often older, lower-income, and have a higher prevalence of smoking and chronic medical conditions, it is unknown how much of the disparities in mortality are due to characteristics of living in a rural area or to inadequate access to healthcare. A recent publication questioned the utility of even examining the causal effects of rural residence, given it is a non-specific and often non-modifiable factor (Caniglia, AJE, 2019). This symposium will bring together researchers with a range of views on how to study and address health outcomes and disparities in rural settings, and discuss the methodological challenges of estimating rural health.

We will first present an overview of how rural areas have been defined over time in the US, and what we know about disparities in rural health. We will then describe the use of various modeling approaches to account for geographic factors, and to examine spatial and temporal trends in health outcomes at the county level using hierarchical Bayesian models. The symposium will close with a presentation that questions the validity of using rural residence as an exposure variable in health research.

Katherine Ahrens, University of Southern Maine
“Introduction to the speakers”

Erika Ziller, University of Southern Maine
“What Does it Mean to be Rural?”

Amy Branum, CDC
“Rural Residence and Health”

Lauren Rossen, CDC
“It Matters Where You Live”

Katherine Ahrens, University of Southern Maine
“What About All That Suppressed Data?”

Ellen Caniglia, NYU Langone
“Rural Residence as an Exposure: What Exactly Are We Studying?”

Plausible Counterfactuals in the Study of Structural Racism and Population Health
Dec 16 @ 10:15 am – 11:45 am

Session Co-Chair: Anusha Vable, University of California, San Francisco
Session Co-Chair: Zinzi Bailey, University of Miami
Session Co-Chair: Julia Raifman, Boston University

There is growing interest in racism as a structural determinant of racial health disparities. While much scholarship has noted there are not plausible counterfactuals for race, there do exist counterfactuals to racism. In this symposium, we will lead a rigorous discussion on plausible counterfactuals in the study of racism and population health. As public health researchers and students increasingly seek to address racial disparities, we hope for this discussion to foster research ideas that will impact how we all understand and seek to address structural racism.

Zinzi Bailey, University of Miami
“Frame topic of structural racism”

Atheen Venkataramani, University of Pennsylvania
“Affirmative action bans and health risk behaviors to college affirmative action bans and smoking and alcohol use among underrepresented minority adolescents in the United States: A difference-in-differences study?”

Julia Raifman, Boston University
“Discussant of Venkataramani study, and state and local policy counterfactuals in the study of racism”

Alyssa Mooney, University of California Berkeley
“Criminal justice reforms: reducing penalties for drug possession, and clearing criminal records”

Anusha Vable, University of California San Francisco
“Discussant of Mooney study, and causal inference in the study of racism”

Whitney Robinson, UNC Chapel Hill
“A (not-so)-fun house of mirrors: Logical fallacies as barriers to conceptualizing better counterfactuals”

The impact of the obesity and diabetes epidemics on cancer incidence and survival
Dec 16 @ 10:15 am – 11:45 am

Session Co-Chair: Deirdre Tobias, Brigham and Women’s Hospital
Session Co-Chair: Paulette Chandler, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

A report from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) identified excess body weight and obesity as significant risk factor for at least 12 cancer sites, including cancers of the breast, colorectum, other gastrointestinal sites, and reproductive organs. Evidence for the role of type 2 diabetes as a mechanism linking obesity with several of these sites is also mounting. As the obesity and diabetes epidemics continue and younger generations age, what will be the key preventive strategies to offset the expected rise in obesity-related cancers? Identifying factors underlying obesity’s and diabetes’ influence on cancer incidence, progression, and survival, may allow for the development of targeted approaches in the prevention of several site-specific cancers. The transdisciplinary panel of speakers we proposed each address unique perspectives of this important public health question, from observational epidemiology to randomized clinical trials.

JoAnn Manson, Harvard University
“Epidemiologic evidence linking obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cancer risk”

Elizabeth Cespedes Feliciano, Kaiser Permanente
“Importance of body composition in cancer outcomes”

Kimberly Bertrand, Boston University
“Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Obesity, Diabetes, and Breast Cancer”

Jennifer Ligibel, Dana Farber Cancer Institute
“Lifestyle intervention trials for cancer prevention and survival: intervening on obesity and diabetes”

The rapid decline in adolescent mental health in the 21st century: magnitude, causes, and treatment innovations from a life course perspective
Dec 16 @ 10:15 am – 11:45 am

Session Co-Chair: Katherine Keyes, Columbia University
Session Co-Chair: Erin Dunn, Massachusetts General Hospital

Throughout much of the 20th century, psychiatric epidemiological studies indicated that depression and anxiety among adolescents had a stable prevalence, even as the prevalence for help-seeking changed. But in the past 10 years, numerous, independent data sources indicate that depression, anxiety, suicidal behavior and completed suicide among adolescents have increased more than in at least the past 50 years. Such an increase requires urgent attention, both to continued efforts to identify causes of the increases as well as underlying causes of adolescent psychiatric disorders, neurobiological mechanisms through which depression and anxiety occur, and innovations in treatment to reach more adolescents and alleviate suffering. In this symposium we address the growing morbidity and mortality of adolescent mental health by leveraging expertise across a spectrum of research foci, from an epidemiological overview into the emergence of the adolescent mental health decline, a life course perspective on early life causes and neurobiological pathways underlying the emergence of adolescent psychiatric disorders, as well as novel treatments for adolescent mental health that leverage digital and mobile technology aimed at ameliorating psychiatric symptoms. We aim to frame the research agenda for a new generation of scholars to engage in innovative and transdisciplinary research bringing science to practice.

Katherine Keyes, Columbia University
“Adolescent mental health is declining: convergence across five independent data sources, and controversies regarding the cause”

Erin Dunn, Massachusetts General Hospital
“Does adolescent health begin in early life? Links between early life adversity, DNA methylation, and adolescent-onset depression”

David Weissman, Harvard University
“Neurobiological Pathways Underlying the Emergence of Depression and Anxiety”

Kathleen Merikangas, National Institute of Mental Health
“Application of mobile technology to identify targets for treatment and prevention in adolescent mood and anxiety disorders”

The Selected, The Generalizable and The Transportable: Dealing with Threats to Internal and External Validity
Dec 16 @ 10:15 am – 11:45 am

Session Co-Chair: Onyebuchi Arah, UCLA
Session Co-Chair: Caroline Thompson, San Diego State University

Selection bias, generalizability and transportability are hot topics in epidemiology and rightly so because they deal with the internal and external validity of causal effect estimates. Unlike internal validity threats like unmeasured confounders, selection bias, and measurement error, external validity concerns have been traditionally poorly studied and understood. Graphical and potential outcomes approaches to validity have been proposed to varying degrees of completeness and accessibility. Estimation methods are increasingly receiving attention in the literature, but actual applications remain scarce. Clinical trials reach only a fraction of eligible participants, and priority populations are often excluded despite a growing need to understand the effectiveness of available interventions at the population-level. The “big data” explosion of the 21st century has resulted in an unprecedented availability of observational data. However, many of these so-called “real world” data sources are mere convenience samples, leading to an increasing need for attention to issues of generalizability of the results derived from them. Further, as time passes, expensive epidemiologic cohorts are aging out and we are faced with the need to generalize results that have been obtained in the past to future generations of humans. In this symposium, we will explore both theoretical and applied issues surrounding selection bias, generalizability and transportability, giving them a general framework.

Caroline Thompson, San Diego State University
“Improving the generalizability of studies using electronic health records and other “real world data” sources”

Zeyan Liew, Yale University
“Live-Birth (Selection) Bias, Internal Validity, and Generalizability in Life-Course Epidemiology: Lessons from Denmark”

Roch Nianogo, UCLA
“Using simulations to generalize and transport treatment effects to a new environment”

Onyebuchi Arah, UCLA
“Adapting g-methods for generalizability and transportability studies”

Elias Bareinboim, Columbia University
“Getting the Causal Language of Selection Bias, Generalizability and Transportability Right”

Wrong Question Bias
Dec 16 @ 10:15 am – 11:45 am

Session Chair: Daniel Westreich, UNC Chapel Hill

At SER 2018, an overflowing room of epidemiologists watched as a host of panelists debated which bias was worst. The audience as jury decided overwhelmingly that bias due to missing data was worst. But we argue that a fundamental bias was missing from the debate: “Wrong question bias.” If our scientific questions are not good, then no answer – no matter how free from systematic error – will help us meet our goals, such as improving the healthy human lifespan.

But what does it mean for a scientific question to be good? What are some of the attributes of good scientific questions? What are some signs of poor scientific questions? We epidemiologists must begin the conversations that will help to sharpen our questions, and thereby help to improve our answers. Here, speakers will address these fundamental questions-about-questions, head-on.

Daniel Westreich, UNC Chapel Hill
“What we talk about when we talk about research questions”

Jessie K. Edwards, UNC Chapel Hill
“Zen and the Art of Asking Better Questions”

Maria Glymour, University of California San Francisco
“Advancing Population Health, Advancing Theory, and Advancing your Career: Working Backwards from your Goals to Define a Research Question”

Stephen Cole, UNC Chapel Hill
“Good Questions are Understandable, Unambiguous, at least partially computable (or identifiable), and important”

Elizabeth Stuart, JHSPH

Learning How to Become a Leader
Dec 16 @ 12:15 pm – 1:15 pm

Session Chair: David Lopez, UTMB

Purpose: To empower the next generation of young epidemiologist to think themselves as leaders and to take the initiative to assume more leadership roles. Importance: The future of the Society for Epidemiologic Research (SER) relies on the next generation of young epidemiologist. By empowering the next generation of epidemiologists with leadership skills as individuals and public health professionals will benefit their professional careers, communities and the mission of the SER. The goal is to initiate a mind shift from public health consumers to global leaders. Format: We will present the seven topics below and unpack the meaning of each other related to developing leadership skills. However, this is an open-ended “ask anything” type of format.

Sonia Hernandez-Diaz, Harvard University
Stephanie Smith-Warner, Harvard University
Onyebuchi Arah, UCLA
Mehta Shruti, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health
Stephen Gilman, NIH

Livin’ on the Edge – Doing and Teaching Epidemiology Outside Top-Ranked Schools of Public Health
Dec 16 @ 12:15 pm – 1:15 pm

Session Chair: Eric Lofgren, Washington State University

As the basic science of public health, epidemiology is taught in a wide variety of contexts, from large schools of public health to informal seminars and workshops in other departments. In the spirit of increasing the diversity of the SER Annual Meeting, including representation from a broader range of institutional settings, this symposium delves into the issues and experiences of epidemiologists teaching in less conventional situations. It will explore issues ranging from student recruitment and curriculum development to articulating – and defending – the role of epidemiological research and teaching in a broader biomedical context.

Nadia Abuelezam, Boston College
“Nursing the Numbers: Epidemiology in a School of Nursing”

Rebecca Smith, University of Illinois
“Of Humans and Other Animals: Epidemiology in a Veterinary College”

Eric Lofgren, Washington State University
“Where the Wet Labs Are: Epidemiology in a Basic Science Heavy Department”

Christina Ludema, University of Georgia
“How Low Can You Go? Epidemiology for Undergrads”

Julia Simard, Stanford University
“No Scrubs: Epidemiology in a Medical School”

Masters-Level Professionals in Academia, Integrated Healthcare, Consulting Companies, & Healthcare Technology
Dec 16 @ 12:15 pm – 1:15 pm

Session Co-Chair: Susan Diaz, National Institutes of Health (NIH)
Session Co-Chair: Erin Bowles, Kaiser Permanente

SER has a genuine commitment towards supporting and promoting their Masters-level professional membership. The SER 2019 inaugural, Masters-Level Symposium was very well received. Sponsored by the SER Membership & Nominations Committee, this 2020 session has been expanded to two sessions.

This session highlights career pathways of Masters-Level SER members in the areas of academia, integrated healthcare, consulting companies, and healthcare technology. We have recruited panelists from both academic and non-academic organizations (CDC, NIH, CEIP, VA) to provide a wide variety of perspectives to attendees. Panelists will provide brief overviews of their careers as master’s level epidemiologists and attendees will have opportunities to ask questions and engage in discussion.

The overall objective of these two sessions is to highlight the valuable contribution of Masters-level professionals in the area of Epidemiologic Research, foster their professional growth inside and outside of SER, and demonstrate SER’s devotion to this esteemed portion of the Membership.

Ruth Geller, Massachusetts General Hospital
“Masters-Level Epidemiologist at an Academic Medical Center & Member, SER Mentoring Committee”

Mrudula Naidu, New York University
“Masters-Level Biostatistician at an Academic Medical Center”

Chad Coleman, Henry Ford Health System
“Masters-Level Epidemiologist at an Integrated Healthcare”

Megan Kemp, GZA
“Masters-Level, Environmental Epidemiologist/Toxicologist at a Consulting Company”

Mandy Kelly, Harvard University
“Masters-Level, Senior Scientist at a Healthcare Technology Company”

Rapid Updates on Public Health Emergencies
Dec 16 @ 12:15 pm – 1:15 pm

Session Chair: Joanna Merckx, McGill University

In this session you will receive pertinent updates on the content and state of some selected health emergencies. The WHO declared ten threats to global health, including air pollution and climate change, antimicrobial resistance and vaccine hesitancy. New emergencies, related to both infectious and non-infectious diseases, appear and “old” diseases re-emerge. The session aims to provide substantive briefings from content experts on the epidemiology of these emergencies and resume the facts and figures of the scope and its magnitude. If you want to get updated on some hot topics in public health today, then attend our 10 minute briefings that will summarize the defined emergencies, in time and space, the threshold reached, major gaps and current actions formulated for its response. We will include the opioid crisis, E-cigarette, or vaping, product use–associated lung injury, re-emerging vaccine-preventable infectious diseases, antimicrobial resistance and the by climate change driven expanding range of arthropod vectors and related spread of infectious diseases.

Saad Omer, Yale University
“Epidemiology of Measles: A Potentially Re-emerging Disease”

Kacey Ernst, University of Arizona
“Complexities in Identifying Climate Change Associations and Predicting Future Risk of Vector-Borne Diseases”

Joanna Merckx, McGill University
“AMR: Update on the Global Failure of Antimicrobials”

Alyssa Harlow, Boston University
“The E-Cigarette, or Vaping, Product Use-Associated Lung Injury Outbreak”

Brandon Marshall, Brown University
“One Shot Update on the Epidemiology of the Overdose Crisis in North America”

Recruitment Fair
Dec 16 @ 12:15 pm – 1:15 pm
Aging Populations and Healthy Aging
Dec 16 @ 1:45 pm – 3:15 pm

Session Chair: Lorena Garcia, University of California, Davis

Tahani Boumenna, University of Massachusetts
“TMAO and cognitive function in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study”

Kayleigh R. Majercak, University of Maryland
“Social Capital and Cost-Related Medication Nonadherence: A Retrospective Longitudinal Cohort Study Using the Health and Retirement Study Data, 2006-2016”

Audra Gold, University of California, San Francisco
“Adverse Childhood Experiences and Late Life Cognitive Performance Across Racial/Ethnic Groups: Results from the KHANDLE Cohort”

Tahani Boumenna, University of Massachusetts
“Relationship of socioeconomic factors on the relationship between the MIND diet and cognitive function in a minority cohort.”

Kendra D. Sims, Oregon State University
“Factors Associated with Recovery from Mobility Limitation in Middle Aged African Americans: The Jackson Heart Study”

Dec 16 @ 1:45 pm – 3:15 pm

Session Chair: Marquis Hawkins, University of Pittsburgh

Xuan Zhang, National Institute on Aging
“Sedentary behavior (SB), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and brain structure in midlife: A brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) sub-study of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA)”

Kaitlyn M. Berry, University of Minnesota
“Weekday-weekend sleep patterns and weight-related behaviors among adolescents”

Sydney Kaye Willis, Boston University
“Diet quality and fecundability in a North American preconception cohort”

Sina Noshad, Brown School of Public Health
“Role of physical activity in lowering racial inequalities in heart failure incidence: A Women’s Health Initiative Study”

M. Lauren Voss, University of Lethbridge
“The adverse impact of sleep quality on psychological resilience is buffered by the importance women place on healthy eating: an interaction analysis”

Cancer Epidemiology: Spanning the Cancer Control Continuum
Dec 16 @ 1:45 pm – 3:15 pm

Session Chair: Andrew Olshan, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

Tomotaka Ugai, Harvard University
“Coffee Intake and CRC Incidence and Mortality According to T-cell Response in Tumor Tissue”

Kimberly A. Bertrand, Boston University
“Gestational diabetes and young-onset breast cancer”

Parichoy Pal Choudhury, National Cancer Institute
“Comparative validation of the BOADICEA and Tyrer-Cuzick breast cancer risk models incorporating polygenic risk in a UK-based prospective cohort”

Mara Epstein, University of Massachusetts Medical School
“Trends in PSA Testing Across Nine Healthcare Delivery Systems”

Chelsea Anderson, American Cancer Society
“Global mental and physical health and 5-year mortality among older, long-term cancer survivors”

Causal Solutions in Psychiatric Epidemiology
Dec 16 @ 1:45 pm – 3:15 pm

Session Chair: Stephen Gilman, NIH

Tammy Jiang, Boston University
“The Protective Effect of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder on Suicide Attempt Risk: A Case of Collider Stratification Bias”

Anthony Chum, Brock University
“A natural experiment to evaluate the impact of marriage equality laws on the mental health of lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals across the United Kingdom”

Abhery Das, University of California, Irvine
“Permissiveness of State Firearm Laws and Increased Suicides by Firearm in the US”

Katherine LeMasters, UNC Chapel Hill
“Using marginal structural models to estimate the causal association of social support from pregnancy to postpartum on maternal depression”

Elizabeth S. Goldsmith, University of Minnesota
“Opioid overdose-related mortality and U.S. death certificate data: a quantitative bias analysis with expert elicitation of bias parameters”

Yiwen Zhu, Massachusetts General Hospital
“Meta-analysis of the total effect decomposition in the presence of multiple mediators: Integrating evidence across trials for schizophrenia treatment”

Environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals; fetal developmental impacts & consequences
Dec 16 @ 1:45 pm – 3:15 pm

Session Chair: Michael Bloom, University at Albany

Lidia Minguez Alarcon, Harvard University
“Paternal mixtures of urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites and phenols in relation to pregnancy outcomes among couples attending a fertility center.”

Yixin Wang, Harvard University
“Associations of trimester-specific blood trihalomethanes concentrations with adverse birth outcomes”

Jiajun Luo, Yale University
“Prenatal Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Behavioral difficulties in childhood at Age 7 and 11 years”

Kristin J. Marks, Emory University
“Prenatal exposure to mixtures of persistent endocrine disrupting chemicals and early menarche in British girls”

Sabine Oskar, Columbia University
“Endocrine-disrupting exposure profiles and early menarche among U.S. adolescent girls: application of unsupervised machine learning techniques”

Akhgar Ghassbian, New York University
“Intrauterine exposure to phthalate metabolites: A follow-up study assessing brain structure and white matter integrity in preadolescence”

Methods for the thorny challenges of real studies
Dec 16 @ 1:45 pm – 3:15 pm

Session Chair: Jennifer Ahern, University of California, Berkeley

Michael A. Webster-Clark, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
“What quacks like a confounder and walks like an instrument?”

Sarah Conner, Boston University
“Regression model for the lifetime risk based on pseudo-values”

Nima Hejazi, University of California, Berkeley
“Leveraging the causal effects of stochastic interventions to evaluate vaccine efficacy in two-phase trials”

Jacqueline Rudolph, Emory University
“Comparing the performance of non-parametric doubly robust estimation to parametric doubly and singly robust estimation”

Gabriel Conzuelo, University of Pittsburgh
“Non-parametric doubly robust estimators to evaluate effect measure modification”

Understanding the role of early life exposures in perinatal and pediatric epidemiology
Dec 16 @ 1:45 pm – 3:15 pm

Session Chair: Sonia Grandi, McGill University

Laura Schummers, University of British Columbia
“Interpregnancy interval and pregnancy outcomes: How important is the timing of confounding variable ascertainment?”

Michelle Dimitiris, McGill University
“Increased Risk of Gestational Diabetes in Twin Pregnancies is Not Primarily Mediated by Gestational Weight Gain”

Lynne Messer, OHSU-PSU School of Public Health
“The canopy continuum and associations with birthweight-for-gestational age deciles for infants born term and preterm in Portland, OR”

Tim Bruckner, University of California, Irvine
“Fetal death as a competing risk for early neonatal death in California, 1989-2015”

Izzuddin M. Aris, Harvard Medical School
“Prospective Associations of Neighborhood Child Opportunity Index with Adolescent Cardio-metabolic Risk”

Jessica L. Gleason, NIH
“Examining variations in child development outcomes by gestational age at delivery among term births”

Vaccines, HCV, and HIV
Dec 16 @ 1:45 pm – 3:15 pm

Session Chair: Bill Miller, The Ohio State University

Anne M. Butler, Washington University in St. Louis
“Estimating the Effectiveness of Childhood Vaccine Schedules”

Wey Wen Lim, The University of Hong Kong
“Causal mediation analysis in the identification and establishment of correlates and mediators of protection for influenza vaccines”

Ashly E. Jordan, City University of New York
“HCV incidence and time-to-seroconversion among patients in an opioid agonist treatment program in New York City”

Neal Goldstein, Drexel University
“Accuracy of chronic Hepatitis C diagnosis in the electronic medical record: implications for bias correction approaches”

Bethany DiPrete, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
“Viral suppression at delivery among women re-initiating or newly initiating antiretroviral therapy through Option B+ in Malawi”

What’s Goin’ On? Policies, Bigotries, and the Shaping of Population Health
Dec 16 @ 1:45 pm – 3:15 pm

Session Chair: Traci Bethea, Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center

Tongtan Chantarat, UCSF
“Police exposure as a determinant of structural racism: An exploration of the association between preterm birth in neighborhoods with high police exposure”

Krisztina Gero, North Eastern University
“State- and county-level total and race-based hate crime in relation to cardiovascular risk factors among middle-aged adults: The National Longitudinal Survey of Youths 1979”

James Buszkiewicz, University of Washington
“The association between state minimum wages, health, and health behavior among working-age adults, Panel Study of Income Dynamics 1999-2017”

Audrey Renson, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
“The impact of a hypothetical cash transfer intervention on racial/ethnic hypertension disparities in young adults”

Ellicott Matthay, University of California, San Francisco
“Evaluating identifiability of the health effects of social policies in the presence of policy clustering”

Gregory Cohen, Boston University
“Equity Efficiency Tradeoffs in The Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease Among Non-Hispanic Black and White Americans”

Associations of Social Factors and Belief Systems with Diabetes Prevention and Control Outcomes
Dec 16 @ 3:45 pm – 5:15 pm

Session Chair: Tammie Johnson, Florida A&M University

Annemarie Hirsch, Department of Population Health Sciences, Geisinger
“Associations of community socioeconomic deprivation with care processes and HbA1c values at time of type 2 diabetes diagnosis in Pennsylvania”

Brendan Smith, Public Health Ontario
“Informing public health interventions using ethical criteria of health equity to reduce social inequities in type 2 diabetes: a modelling study using the Diabetes Population Risk Tool”

Stephen W. Pan, Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University
“Supernatural beliefs intervention to enhance type 2 diabetes self-management in China: a pilot randomized controlled trial”

Wanqi Wang, Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University
“Religious involvement is associated with diabetes self-management among Chinese diabetes patients: a cross-sectional study”

Shuko Takahashi, Harvard University
“Living in temporary housing increased the incidence of diabetes mellitus for men in 64 years or younger in tsunami affected area after the Great East Japan Earthquake”

Kelly Hunt, Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center
“Neighborhood factors associated with diabetes control in a national sample of veterans with diabetes.”

Big Data Applications in Epidemiology
Dec 16 @ 3:45 pm – 5:15 pm

Session Chair: Laura Rosella, University of Toronto

Randall Boyes, Queen’s University
“Improving prediction of outdoor active play using neighborhood images”

Milena Gianfrancesco, University of California, San Francisco
“Application of text mining methods to identify lupus nephritis from electronic health records”

Rachel Sippy, University of Florida
“Prediction of Microclimates Using a Comparative Machine Learning Approach”

Stephanie Teeple, University of Pennsylvania
“Evaluating the health equity impact of a machine learning-based clinical prediction tool”

Dana Taltsch, Aetion
“Approaches for the Inference of Mortality in Claims Data”

Early identification and prevention of brain disorders
Dec 16 @ 3:45 pm – 5:15 pm

Session Chair: Julie Buring, Harvard University

Jonviea Chamberlain, Université de Bordeaux
“Incident cancer diagnosis on subsequent risk of Alzheimer’s disease-related dementia”

Shama Karanth, University of Kentucky
“Association of metabolic syndrome and cognitive function in a population-based cross-sectional study of adults aged 60 years or older”

Jingkai Wei, George Washington University
“The Associations of Dietary Copper with Incident Dementia: The Atherosclerosis Risks in Community (ARIC) Study”

Mark Warden, University of Washington
“A Comparison of Prediction Approaches for Identifying Prodromal Parkinson Disease”

L. Paloma Rojas-Saunero, Erasmus University Medical Center
“Hypothetical blood-pressure-lowering interventions and risk of stroke and dementia”

Jennifer R. Fonda, VA Boston Healthcare System
“Mild traumatic brain injury, persistent neurobehavioral symptoms and functional disability in Post-9/11 Veterans: network analysis of a transdiagnostic sample”


Fertility and Pregnancy
Dec 16 @ 3:45 pm – 5:15 pm

Session Chair: Sam Parker, Boston University

Olivia R. Orta, Boston University
“Perceived discrimination and time to pregnancy”

Amelia Wesselink, Boston University
“Residential proximity to major roads and fecundability among North American pregnancy planners”

Carmen Messerlian, Harvard Chan School of Public Health
“Paternal Preconception Exposure to Plasticizers and Risk of Pregnancy Loss”

Alexandra Purdue-Smithe, NICHD
“Effects of lifestyle interventions on risk of pregnancy loss”

Lindsey Sjaarda, NICHD/NIH
“Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor type and pregnancy loss”

Stefania Papatheodorou, Harvard School of Public Health
“Higher levels of residential radon are associated with higher odds of PIH disorders in Massachusetts, USA”

Gender, Gender Identity and Race in the Epidemiology of Mental Health and Substance Use
Dec 16 @ 3:45 pm – 5:15 pm

Session Chair: Greg Cohen, Boston University

Jonathan Platt, Columbia University
“Changes in the depression gender gap from 1992-2014: cohort effects and mediation by gendered social position”

Sarah McKetta, Columbia University
“Trends in U.S. women’s mid-life binge drinking by socioeconomic status, 2006–2018”

Sarah Lipson, Boston University
“Transgender Mental Health in the U.S.: Results of a National Survey on College Campuses”

Ariel Beccia, University of Massachusetts
“Psychological distress and substance use in transgender adults in the United States: An intersectional multilevel analysis of individual heterogeneity and discriminatory accuracy”

John R. Pamplin, Columbia University
“Expanding upon social stress theory in the context of the Black-White depression paradox: Testing alternative causal structures for the relationships between race, stress, and depression”

William Goedel, Brown University
“Racial Segregation and Treatment Capacity for Opioid Use Disorder in the United States”

Genetics in Epidemiology: Strengthening Causal Inference, Identifying Mechanisms, Improving Prediction
Dec 16 @ 3:45 pm – 5:15 pm

Session Chair: Brandon Pierce, University of Chicago

Jacob Kresovich, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
“mBCRM: a methylation-based risk prediction model for breast cancer”

Suvo Chatterjee, National Institutes of Health
“Genetic overlaps between birthweight and childhood obesity phenotypes”

Arjun Bhattacharya, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
“Transcriptome-wide prediction and association studies enriched for mediating biomarkers”

Willa D. Brenowitz, UCSF
“Beyond Mendelian Randomization: Using Genetic Information to Identify Earliest Manifestations of Alzheimer’s Disease”

Joy Shi, Harvard University
“A comparison of analytical approaches to obtain Mendelian randomization estimates with longitudinal exposures”

CM Schooling, The University of Hong Kong
“Bias from competing risk before recruitment in Mendelian Randomization studies of conditions with shared etiology”

How health and social policies shape population health and health equity
Dec 16 @ 3:45 pm – 5:15 pm

Session Chair: Julia Raifman, Boston University

Jaquelyn Jahn, Harvard University
“Frequent Police Stops, Parental Incarceration, & Mental Health: An Intersectional Analysis Among U.S. non-Hispanic Black and White Adolescent Girls and Boys”

Alvaro Castillo-Carniglia, Universidad Mayor
“Changes in Opioid prescribing after implementation of mandatory registration and proactive reports within California’s prescription drug monitoring program: a quasi-experimental study”

Magdalena Cerda, NYU School of Medicine
“What impact have pain management clinic laws had on opioid overdose deaths in the United States?”

Nichole Austin, McGill University
“Do TRAP laws close abortion clinics?”

Ki-Bong Yoo, Yonsei University
“Impacts of the Smoking Ban Policy on the Sales of Billiard Halls in Seoul, South Korea: Using Objective Sales Information from Credit Card Companies”


Nutritional and Obesity Epidemiology
Dec 16 @ 3:45 pm – 5:15 pm

Session Chair: Patrick Bradshaw, University of California, Berkeley

Elizabeth Widen, University of Texas at Austin
“Weight loss, stability and low weight gain during pregnancy among women with obesity are associated with preterm birth and smaller neonatal size”

Sindiso Nyathi, Stanford University
“Estimating the effect of exclusive breastfeeding on risk of overweight and obesity in infants: A targeted maximum likelihood analysis.”

Katalin Gemes, Karolinska Institutet
“Comparative effectiveness of dietary interventions on the risk of cardiovascular diseases – estimates from Swedish populations”

Hailey Banack, University at Buffalo
“Flexible approaches for modeling weight histories”

Pi-i D. Lin, University of Massachusetts Amherst
“Causal differences in blood arsenic and mercury concentrations by following the dietary recommendation on seafood intake during pregnancy”

Dec 16 @ 3:45 pm – 5:15 pm

Session Chair: Kristian Filion, McGill University

Kristin Palmsten, HealthPartners Institute
“Late pregnancy oral corticosteroid dose and risk of preterm birth: Is early pregnancy exposure to oral corticosteroids a confounder or an instrumental variable?”

Oluwadolapo Lawal, Boston University
“The Association Between Prenatal Opioid Exposure and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Children. A large population-based study”

Sophie E. Mayer, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
“The impact of differential screening in studies of medication use and cancer risk”

Xiaojuan Li, Harvard Medical School
“A good design is half the battle won: lessons learned for real-world evidence from trial replications using real-world data”

Lin Wang, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health
“Comparative effectiveness of systematic therapies for metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer: a parametric survival network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials”

Speed Networking (*Pre-Registration Required)
Dec 17 @ 7:00 am – 7:45 am

Session Co-Chair: Precious Esie, Columbia University
Session Co-Chair: Matthew Mietchen, Washington State University

Attendees will have the opportunity to meet and network with early and mid-career epidemiologists in small groups. Following a “speed dating” format, each mentor will be paired with 3-4 attendees at a time, and attendees will randomly rotate breakout groups during the session. This will be an opportunity to network with potential mentors and discuss career and professional development experiences and opportunities. This event will be capped at 40 attendees.

Click here to register.

Zinzi Bailey, University of Miami
Laura Balzer, University of Massachusetts
Lorraine Dean, Johns Hopkins University
Chanelle Howe, Brown University
Lauren McCullough, Emory University
Carrie Nobles, University of Massachusetts
Alexandra Purdue-Smithe, NIH-NICHD
Shawnita Sealy-Jefferson, Ohio State University
Jaime Slaughter-Acey, University of Minnesota
Britton Trabert, NIH-National Cancer Institute
Brian Whitcomb, University of Massachusetts-Amherst

Click here to register.

Plenary Session 2
Dec 17 @ 8:00 am – 9:45 am

Session Chair: Jay Kaufman, McGill University

Lilienfeld Postdoctoral Prize Paper Award Winner, Barbra Dickerman, Harvard University
“Avoidable flaws in observational analyses: an application to statins and cancer”

Tyroler Student Prize Paper Award Winner, Michael Webster-Clark, University of North Carolina
“Reweighting Oranges to Apples: Transported RE-LY Trial vs Non-experimental Effect Estimates of Anticoagulation in Atrial Fibrillation”

Keynote Speaker: Brian Nosek, Center for Open Science
“Bias in Science”

Better targeting of target populations: Methods for health disparities research
Dec 17 @ 10:15 am – 11:45 am

Session Co-Chair: Whitney Robinson, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Session Co-Chair: Danielle Gartner, Michigan State University

Madison D. Anderson, University of Minnesota
“Choosing a Target Population for American Indian data: Standardization, not Assimilation”

Courtney D. Shelley, Los Alamos National Laboratory
“Finding those who need us most: Data-driven efforts toward enrollment and engagement of US Veterans in VA services”

Bill Jesdale, University of Massachusetts Medical School
“Missing Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Data in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2014-2018: Sources, Magnitude, and Correlates”

Rae Anne Martinez, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
“A systematic review of the use of race and ethnicity in U.S. medical and epidemiologic research”

Dawn G. Albright, Aetion
“Filling in the Gaps: Feasibility of using Electronic Health Record data to study uninsured populations”

Diet and adipostiy indices in relation to health throughout the lifespan
Dec 17 @ 10:15 am – 11:45 am

Session Chair: Amy E. Millen, University at Buffalo

Yu Ni, University of Washington
“Maternal Diet in Pregnancy and Child Blood Pressure: Results from the Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood (CANDLE) Study”

Karen Switkowski, Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute
“Patterns of Complementary Feeding Behaviors Predict Diet Quality in Early Childhood”

Aaron T. Berger, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities
“Changes in association between school meals and children’s dietary quality during implementation of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010”

Brendan Smith, Public Health Ontario
“The impact of Health Canada’s Voluntary Sodium Reformulation Targets on educational inequalities in sodium intake: a modelling study using the 2015 Canadian Community Health Survey-Nutrition”

Gabriela Vieyra, University of Massachusetts Amherst
“Association between dietary patterns and urinary phthalate exposure among postmenopausal women”


Health Disparities Across the Cancer Continuum: Beyond Biology
Dec 17 @ 10:15 am – 11:45 am

Session Chair: Lauren McCullough, Emory University

Alpana Kaushiva, University of Illinois at Chicago
“Differences in the Distribution of Tract Level Ambient Air Toxics by Race/Ethnicity and Segregation in the Metro Chicago Breast Cancer Registry”

Jenna Khan-Gates, University of Hawai’i
“The role of spatial accessibility in presenting for care at Breast Imaging Centers of Excellence”

Kevin Martinez-Folgar, Drexel University
“Liver cancer mortality disparities between Hispanics and Non-Hispanics Whites in 126 US cities”

Lindsay J. Collin, Emory University
“Financial toxicity is associated with increased breast cancer mortality: the role of structural racism on disparities in outcomes”

Maria Kamenetsky, University of Wisconsin-Madison
“Identification of Breast Cancer Spatial Structures Based on the Wisconsin Women’s Health Study”

Methods for environmental epidemiology in a changing climate
Dec 17 @ 10:15 am – 11:45 am

Session Chair: Tarik Benmarhnia, University of California, San Diego

Koichiro Shiba, Harvard University
“Challenges and Approaches for Causal Inference in Studying the Long-term Health Effects of Disaster”

Arin A. Balalian, Columbia University
“Potential for preterm birth to mediate the relationship between maternal exposure to air pollution and childhood academic achievement.”

Mary D. Willis, Oregon State University
“Impacts of Exposure to Oil and Gas Drilling during Pregnancy on Markers of Intrauterine Growth Restriction among Term Infants: A Difference-in-Differences Analysis”

Francois Rerolle, University of California at San Francisco
“Spatio-temporal patterns of associations between deforestation and malaria incidence in Lao PDR.”

Erin Hetherington, University of Calgary
“Birth outcomes and pregnancy complications after the 2013 Calgary flood: a difference in difference analysis”

Yu-Hsuan Shih, University of Illinois at Chicago
“Mediating role of metals in the associations between dietary behaviors and growth-related traits in Bangladeshi children aged 5-7 years”

Missing data and selection bias in complex settings
Dec 17 @ 10:15 am – 11:45 am

Session Chair: Sebastien Haneuse, Harvard University

Rachael K. Ross, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
“Combining weights for missing data and confounding”

Neal Goldstein, Drexel University
“Catchment and selection bias in an outpatient electronic medical record study of community deprivation and chronic Hepatitis C virus infection”

Shuji Ogino, Harvard University
“Lessons Learned from Use of Inverse Probability Weighting to Adjust for Selection Bias in Molecular Epidemiology”

Milena Gianfrancesco, University of California, San Francisco
“Reweighting to address non-participation and missing data bias in a longitudinal electronic health record study”

Erin Delker, University of California, San Diego
“Taking ‘steps’ to explore selection bias due to missing accelerometry data”

Michael A. Webster-Clark, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
“Covariate missingness, complete case analysis, and transportability, oh my!”

Novel designs and analytic approaches in brain aging research
Dec 17 @ 10:15 am – 11:45 am

Session Co-Chair: Elizabeth Rose Mayeda, University of California, Los Angeles
Session Co-Chair: Lindsay Kobayashi, University of Michigan

Sarah F. Ackley, University of California, San Francisco
“Does amyloid-beta reduction improve cognitive outcomes? Integrated evidence from randomized trials of amyloid targeting therapies”

Kan Gianaattasio, George Washington University
“Assessing the generalizability of findings from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative to the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study cohort”

Yuan Ma, Harvard University
“Decreased complexity and increased variability in systolic blood pressure are associated with elevated long-term risk of dementia: The Rotterdam Study”

Sindana Ilango, UCSD/SDSU Joint Doctoral Program
“Competing risks in studies of air pollution and dementia: A demonstration of multiple approaches to account for informed censoring due to death”

Eleanor Hayes-Larson, University of California, Los Angeles
“Can the competing risk of death or selective survival explain the inverse association between cancer and dementia? A simulation study”

Perinatal & Pediatric Epidemiology: Get to know the unknowns
Dec 17 @ 10:15 am – 11:45 am

Session Chair: Yeyi Zhu, Kaiser Permanente

Carmer Messerlian, Harvard Chan School of Public Health
“Exploring Paternal Preconception Windows of Vulnerability on Offspring Birthweight in Relation to Bisphenol and Phthalate Exposure”

Kurt Taylor, University of Bristol
“Pregnancy metabolomic profiles and congenital heart disease in the offspring: Findings from the Born in Bradford Cohort”

Dana Goin, University of California, San Francisco
“Experience of multiple hardships prior to and during pregnancy and fetal growth: Extending environmental mixtures methodology to social exposures”

Buyun Liu, University of Iowa
“Association of Maternal Electronic Cigarette Use Before and During Pregnancy with Impaired Fetal Growth in Offspring”

Samrawit Fikru Yisahak, NIH
“Maternal Vegetarian Diets and Fetal Growth: Findings from the NICHD Fetal Growth Studies”

Jiajun Luo, Yale School of Public Health
“Maternal Marijuana Use and Emotional and Behavioral Functioning among Children at Age 9-10 in The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study”

Simulation, Prediction, and other Innovative Approaches in Infectious Disease Epidemiology
Dec 17 @ 10:15 am – 11:45 am

Session Chair: Brandon Marshall, Brown University

Nina Masters, University of Michigan
“Exploring the impact of clustering of unvaccinated individuals on risk of measles infection at herd-immunity vaccination levels”

Ben Cowling, The University of Hong Kong
“The causal interpretation of “overall vaccine effectiveness” in test-negative studies”

Mabel Carabali, McGill University
“Assessing the Reporting and Misclassification of Arboviruses in the National Surveillance System of Colombia (2014-2017)”

Andre Filipe de Moraes Batista, Universidade de Sao Paulo
“A machine learning approach to predict mortality from severe dengue in Colombia”

Elizabeth T. Rogawski McQuade, University of Virginia
“Differences in the target parameter could explain contradictory results between observational and intervention studies of the effect of improved sanitation on child growth”

The epidemiology of the substance use continuum
Dec 17 @ 10:15 am – 11:45 am

Session Chair: Alvaro Castillo, Universidad Mayor, Chile

Pia Mauro, Columbia University
“Changes in marijuana use disorder treatment utilization following medical marijuana law enactment, 2004-2014”

Luis Segura, Columbia University
“The association between prescription opioid misuse and suicidality in United States adolescents: NSDUH 2015-2017”

Gretchen Bandoli, University of California, San Diego
“Prenatal cannabis exposure and adverse neonatal outcomes”

Elizabeth Kinnard, UC Berkeley
“Association between public injection and syringe sharing frequency in a cohort of people who inject drugs in San Francisco and Los Angeles”

Isaac Rhew, University of Washington
“The association between marijuana use and initiation of pain reliever misuse during young adulthood in a legal marijuana context”

Spruha Joshi, New York University
“Why Do the Majority of US High School Seniors Still Not Use Marijuana? Prevalence of Self-Reported Reasons Across Four Decades”

Changes in Academic Publishing and Peer Review
Dec 17 @ 12:15 pm – 1:15 pm

Session Co-Chair: Rachael Stolzenberg, NIH
Session Co-Chair: Nichole Austin, McGill University

The number of new journals has grown dramatically over the past two decades, providing authors more options for where to publish their work. Unfortunately, this growth has been accompanied by an increase in predatory journals and renewed interest in the profit model for academic publishing, whereby authors provide research outputs and peer review, and publishers keep the copyright and profit out of proportion to their value added. There is ongoing concern about publication bias and poor replicability given the enduring prioritization of statistically significant findings and because certain findings – for example, results from high visibility studies – are more likely to get published. There are also challenges in obtaining appropriate peer reviewers to review manuscripts. Numerous changes to academic publishing and peer review have been proposed and experimented with to deal with these issues, including open access and not-for-profit journals, pre-registration of studies, inviting outside authors to write discussion sections, post-publication and open peer review, publishing on pre-print servers and registered reports, and Plan S, which may mark a noteworthy shift in publication practices. These experiments have the potential to transform academic publishing, but it is not clear which, if any, are most likely to make an impact. In this lunchtime panel discussion session you have the chance to hear from experts in academic publishing to talk about the future as they see it.

Enrique Schisterman, NIH
Christina Snyder, Oxford University Press
Elizabeth Platz, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health

ESI-Research Agenda
Dec 17 @ 12:15 pm – 1:15 pm

Session Chair: Magdalena Cerda, New York University

Life-course Epidemiological Research in Brazil
Dec 17 @ 12:15 pm – 1:15 pm

Session Co-Chair: Moyses Szklo, JHSPH
Session Co-Chair: Paulo Lotufo, University of Sao Paulo

Epidemiologic transition is a concept first used by Omran to explore the complex change in patterns of health and disease. In Brazil, number of deaths due to infectious diseases the past six decades, infectious diseases were a public health problem. Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have become a major health priority in Brazil – 72% of all deaths were attributable to NCDs in 2007. From this point of view, our proposal is to present the new frontiers in the early life course epidemiology developed in Brazil. Therefore, our proposal is to describe the double burden of infectious diseases and NCDs in Brazil, and present a life course approach on NCD epidemiology based on information from several observational studies carried out in Brazil: 1st . Prolonged and polarized epidemiological transition: coexistence of infectious diseases and NCDs: Marcia C Castro; 2nd . Population-based birth cohorts in Brazil: from the first 1,000 days to the first 15,000 days: César G. Victora; 3rd . Youth/Child cardiometabolic health, lifestyle behavior and associated environmental factors in Brazilian populations: Augusto César F. De Moraes; 4th . Factors related to cardiovascular health in adulthood: Paulo Lotufo; 5th . Determinants of late-life cognition: Claudia Suemoto.

Marcia Castro, Harvard University
“Prolonged and polarized epidemiological transition: coexistence of infectious diseases and NCDs”

Cesar Victora, JHSPH
“Population-based birth cohorts in Brazil: from the first 1,000 days to the first 15,000 days”

Augusto Cesar Ferreira De Moraes, University of Sao Paulo
“Youth/Child cardiometabolic health lifestyle behavior and associated environmental factors in Brazilian populations”

Paulo Lotufo, University of Sao Paulo
“Factors related to cardiovascular health in adulthood”

Isabela Bensenor, University of Sao Paulo
“Thyroid function in Brazil: perspectives of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)”

SPC Career Panel
Dec 17 @ 12:15 pm – 1:15 pm

Session Co-Chair: Precious Esie, Columbia University
Session Co-Chair: Matthew Mietchen, Washington State University

“Please join the Student & Post-Doc Committee (SPC) during this lunchtime session where panelists from academia, government, and the private sector will share experiences and advice from their career trajectories. Panelists will introduce themselves describing their expertise and experience, and then the session will be opened for audience questions and discussion.”

Dayna Johnson, Emory University
Tsegaselassie Workalemahu, University of Utah
Theresa Chapple-McGruder, AMCHP
Justin Lessler, Johns Hopkins University
Sarah Rhea, RTI International

Speed Mentoring for Epidemiologists Considering Returning to School to Pursue Doctoral Studies
Dec 17 @ 12:15 pm – 1:15 pm

Session Co-Chair: Susan Diaz, International Consortium for Blood Safety (ICBS)
Session Co-Chair: Erin Bowles, Kaiser Permanente

SER has a genuine commitment towards supporting and promoting their Masters-level professional membership. The SER 2019 inaugural, Masters-Level Symposium was very well received. Sponsored by the SER Membership & Nominations Committee, this 2020 session has been expanded to two sessions.

This session is dedicated to supporting SER Masters-level students and professionals contemplating returning to school to pursue Doctoral Studies. In the SER Masters-level survey in 2017, 24.4% planned to return to school to pursue Doctoral Studies (DrPH/PhD). In a speed-mentoring format, forty, pre-registered, attendees will receive mentoring from working, Masters-Level Professionals, as well as from those whom decided to return to school to pursue Doctorate degrees (DrPH/PhD/ScD). The event will have 1-2 mentors at small tables who will engage in a brief discussion with mentees at that table. The mentors will rotate tables to engage in discussions with a new group of mentees every 10-15 minutes.

The overall objective of these two sessions is to highlight the valuable contribution of Masters-level professionals in the area of Epidemiologic Research, foster their professional growth inside and outside of SER, and demonstrate SER’s devotion to this esteemed portion of the Membership.

Tess Gilbert, Veterans Affairs
“Masters-Level Epidemiologist in Government, at the Federal Level (VA)”

Tanya Libby, University of California Berkeley
“Masters-Level, CDC Foodnet Epidemiologist in Government, at the State Level (CEIP)”

Rebecca Ehrenkranz, Pittsburgh University
“Masters-Level, Surveillance Epidemiologist in Government, at the Federal Level (NIH/NCI) & Current Doctoral Student in Epidemiology (Pitt SPH)”

Nedghie Adrien, Boston University
“Masters-Level Epidemiologist in Government, at the Federal Level (CDC Foundation) & Current Doctoral Student in Epidemiology (BUSPH)”

Reese Sy, Boston University
“Former Data Analyst in Brain Injury Research at an Academic Center & Current Graduate Research Fellow/Doctoral Student in Epidemiology (BUSPH)”

Rachael Ross, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
“Former Masters-Level Epidemiologist at an Academic Medical Center (CHOP) & Current Doctoral Student in Epidemiology (UNC SPH)”

Robert C. Orellana, CDC
“Doctoral-Level Epidemiologist in the Federal Government & Former Epidemiologist at the State Level”

Dr. Babatunde Oloyede, United States Public Health Service Commander and Clinical Epidemiologist
“Masters-Level, Reproductive Health Epidemiologist in Government, at the Federal Level (CDC)”

Nnaemeka Odo, Exponent
“Physician & Doctoral-Level Epidemiologist in Environmental & Occupational Health at a Consulting Company”

Kristin Palmsten, HealthPartners
“Doctoral-Level, Research Investigator at a Research Institute”

Anne Mobley Butler, Washington University in St. Louis
“Doctoral-Level, Professor of Medicine in Infectious Diseases, at a Medical School”

The American Journal of (Social) Epidemiology Panel
Dec 17 @ 12:15 pm – 1:15 pm

Session Co-Chair: Maria Glymour, University of California, San Francisco
Session Co-Chair: Ichiro Kawachi, Harvard University

“The American Journal of Epidemiology has a long track record of publishing articles that have defined our field conceptually and engaged with its ongoing challenges.  Currently, nearly one-third of annual submissions to the Journal address the social determinants of health, positioning the journal well to continue in its leadership role in promoting the science of social epidemiology. In this session, members of the AJE Board will discuss their vision of the future of the journal as a leading venue for showcasing the most cutting edge science from our field.”

Stephen Gilman, NIH/NICHD
Gina Lovasi, Drexel University
Arjumand Siddiqi, University of Toronto
Chanelle Howe, Brown University

Causal inference and molecular epidemiology: How can we best use -omics to answer epidemiologic questions of interest?
Dec 17 @ 1:45 pm – 3:15 pm

Session Co-Chair: Jonathan Y. Huang, Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences
Session Co-Chair: Brian Whitcomb, University of Massachusetts

Driven by computational and methodological advances, developments in observational causal inference related to “-omics,” or high-dimensional molecular biomarkers, are proceeding apace in computer science and bioinformatics: from promises of machine learning of Directed Acyclic Graphs and Bayesian modelling of gene regulatory networks to agnostic “causal discovery” via genomic instrumental variables. Such work might suggest –omics can be leveraged to address a variety of goals in epidemiologic causal inference such as identifying biochemical targets for intervention; decomposing effects of modifiable disease pathways; or clarifying how “embodied” biological processes mediate the effects of social factors. And yet, very basic questions related to causal effect identification in molecular epidemiology and its relevance to population health remain unanswered.

Here we ask a panel of presenters to briefly address a few challenging questions relevant to causal inference in molecular epidemiology.

These will be considered by a discussant and the panel itself:
1. How do we address standard causal inference assumptions in molecular epidemiology? For example, can we ensure consistency is reasonably fulfilled?
2. How do we best leverage biological knowledge to investigate epigenetic mediation?
3. What are the implications of genetic instruments for agnostic causal discovery?
4. How can –omics network discovery or other data reduction strategies help understand causal mechanisms?

Laura Balzer, University of Massachusetts-Amherst
“Mediation Madness: Analyses with Multiple Mediators Occuring at Multiple Levels”

Ema Perkovic, University of Washington
“Graphical Criteria for Efficient Total Effect Estimation in Causal Linear Models”

Jon Huang, Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences
“Leveraging Molecular Biomarkers in Multiple Tissues to Strengthen Inference on Developmental Mechanisms”

Jeremy Labrecque, Erasmus MC
“Instruments can’t keep time: Evidence for Genes with Time-Varying Effects and How to Use Them in Mendelian Randomization”

Causal mediation analysis meets consequential epidemiology: Recent insights and advances on the cross-world assumption from across the world
Dec 17 @ 1:45 pm – 3:15 pm

Session Co-Chair: Ryan M. Andrews, Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology
Session Co-Chair: Wen Wei Loh, Ghent University

Understanding the causal mechanisms between an exposure and outcome is a crucial step towards designing interventions to improve population health. Epidemiologists have used causal mediation methods to estimate natural direct and indirect effects to answer such mechanistic questions; however, these methods have been criticized for relying on a “cross-world” independence assumption that is experimentally unverifiable and sometimes unrealistic. Also, natural and path-specific effects involve a non-manipulable parameter, which raises the question of whether causal mediation is more philosophical than scientific in nature. In this symposium, we will provide counterpoints to these criticisms via alternative conceptualizations of causal mediation under which mediation effects can be identified and estimated under realistic assumptions that are empirically testable, including when there are multiple mediators.

We believe this symposium is an excellent fit for SER 2020. There is ongoing debate at SER, on social media, and in the scientific literature on whether causal questions must be answered in terms of well-defined manipulable parameters. This symposium adds to the debate by showing new perspectives under which causal mediation is scientifically grounded. It also brings together an impressive group of mediation analysis researchers across three continents, and we believe the diversity of examples and opinions within this group will interesting to the SER membership.

Ryan M. Andrews, Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology
“Insights into the “cross-world” assumption of causal mediation analysis: Theoretical and practical considerations”

Isabel Fulcher, Harvard Data Science Initiative
“Identification and estimation of indirect effects robust to unmeasured confounding”

Wen Wei Loh, Ghent University
“Interventional effect models for multiple mediators”

Margarita Moreno-Betancur, University of Melbourne
“Defining mediation effects for multiple mediators using the concept of the target randomized trial”

Vanessa Didelez, Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology – BIPS

Climate change and health: where are we?
Dec 17 @ 1:45 pm – 3:15 pm

Session Co-Chair: Sandie Ha, University of California, Merced
Session Co-Chair: Carrie Nobles, NICHD

Climate change is an unprecedented threat to human health and the greatest public health challenge of the 21st century. With environmental impacts already observable and more severe impacts anticipated even when meeting global emissions goals, there is an immediate need to not only reduce carbon emissions but to develop strategies to mitigate anticipated health impacts of climate change. Beyond extreme temperatures, climate change is anticipated to impact health through many routes including severe weather events, droughts, wildfires, changes in the distribution of infectious diseases and population displacement due to sea-level rise, with disproportionate impacts in communities with the fewest resources. Epidemiology will play a vital role in estimating and predicting the health impacts of climate change, with efforts requiring cross-disciplinary collaborations and close partnership with policymakers. Despite this, climate change has not received the emphasis within the field of epidemiology needed to match its unprecedented threat to health. We propose a symposium inviting five key leaders in climate change epidemiology to a) present the latest cutting-edge research in climate change epidemiology, b) discuss climate change equity issues facing our communities, and c) discuss challenges and opportunities for research as well as the policy making process related to climate change.

Kristie Ebi, University of Washington
“Climate change and health: how did we get here and where are we going?”

Kate Weinberger, University of British Columbia
“Opportunities for Epidemiologic Research to Inform Adaptation to Climate Change”

Jesse Berman, University of Minnesota
“Existing Challenges, Opportunities and Recent Advances in Drought and Health Research”

Carina Gronlund, University of Michigan
“Translating Climate and Health Knowledge into Testable Interventions in the Industrial Midwest”

Wael Al-Delaimy, University California, San Diego
“Climate change is a reason to revisit our approach as epidemiologists: the role of policy”

Epidemiologists and data scientists: Can you tell the difference?
Dec 17 @ 1:45 pm – 3:15 pm

Session Co-Chair: Barbra Dickerman, Harvard University
Session Co-Chair: Miguel Hernan, Harvard University

Recent applications of machine learning to healthcare data are fueling an intense debate: will the value match the hype? Remarkable advances in areas such as visual pattern recognition have already enabled machine learning algorithms to outperform physicians on prediction tasks involving subtle patterns. This wave of success has heightened interest and expectations around the use of machine learning to uncover better treatment strategies that get the right interventions to the right people at the right time.

The challenge of drawing causal inference from observational data, which epidemiologists have long grappled with, is now in the spotlight of data scientists’ work on these complex tasks of sequential decision-making. This presents a significant opportunity to bring epidemiologists and other data scientists together, to borrow from each other’s theoretical and practical advances and learn from each other’s mistakes in the shared pursuit of optimal treatment strategies.

The aim of this symposium is to bring together investigators from different fields (epidemiology, biomedical informatics, computer science) and different institutions (Harvard, Stanford, MIT) who are approaching similar causal questions with different terminologies and analytic techniques. This symposium will bridge these perspectives and advance our understanding of how machine learning can be used to answer causal questions and how causal inference can support the development of machine learning methods to improve healthcare decision-making.

Barbra Dickerman, Harvard University
“Counterfactual Prediction: How to Use Data to Support Healthcare Decision-Making?”

Nigam Shah, Stanford University
“Learning from Patients like Mine at the Point of Care”

David Sontag, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
“Machine Learning to Improve a Precision Approach to Healthcare”

Moving forward: Theories, philosophies and histories for education in Epidemiology
Dec 17 @ 1:45 pm – 3:15 pm

Session Co-Chair: Michael Windle, JHSPH
Session Co-Chair: Daniel Antiporta, JHSPH

Paradigms in epidemiology have changed during the past 50 years, moving through what some have termed “traditional” and “modern” epidemiology to the epidemiology of the contemporary era. Efforts have been made to reconcile and consolidate specialized branches of the field, along with its diverse philosophical approaches. Some call for a unified epidemiology and others argue the historical record makes clear that a shared interest in investigating population health does not presume a single theoretical or philosophical orientation. Changing times represent a challenge for graduate training that should comprehend the full scope of an inherently synthetic field: competence in methodological innovations and preservation of its diverse philosophical underpinnings. As doctoral students, we noticed that our training is appropriately heavy on methods and statistical training. Less well represented are the theory, philosophy and history of the field, which tend to be incorporated tangentially when not omitted entirely. We believe that graduate students should be equipped to query and understand the raison d’être of epidemiology and the history of its methodological tools, which will enable us to push the boundaries of the discipline. This symposium was proposed accordingly, and we believe epidemiologists globally, both students and teachers, share this interest. The symposium aims to highlight contemporary aspects in epidemiology that deserve consideration in the context of graduate education. We hope to start a discussion on the need of emphasizing the diverse theory, philosophy, and history of the discipline during graduate training. We expect this discussion highlights current and potential concrete efforts towards that goal.

Alison Abraham, Johns Hopkins University
“Core competencies for epidemiologists: a multi-national effort”

Nancy Krieger, Harvard University
“Epidemiologic Theories and the People’s Health”

Maria Glymour, University of California, San Francisco
“Methods that Matter for Epidemiology in the Current Era”

Alfredo Morabia, Columbia University
“Why history matters for epidemiologists?”

Daniel Antiporta, JHSPH
“Student Voices: Programs, Expectations and Transitions in Epidemiology”

Michael Kramer, Columbia University

Polygenic risk scores: challenges and opportunities for population health equity
Dec 17 @ 1:45 pm – 3:15 pm

Session Co-Chair: Lindsay Fernandez-Rhodes, Penn State University
Session Co-Chair: Ann Von Holle, NIEHS

Polygenic and genetic risk scores have become popular in the medical literature. Nonetheless best practices for their use in population health studies at times are unclear and may prove problematic as future genetic studies include more racially and ethnically diverse populations.
Our symposium focuses on the construction and interpretation of polygenic and genetic risk scores as well as their implications for health disparities research. As such, this symposium lies at the intersection of genetic epidemiology, methodologic issues, and the social and ethical implications of genomics by using examples from a diverse panel of speakers on a number of complex diseases and population health relevant contexts.

The symposium is divided into three parts:
1) Dr. Chatterjee will provide an introduction to polygenic and genetic risk scores in the context of public health;
2) Dr. Wojcik will explain how polygenic risk estimation currently underperforms in ancestrally diverse populations, and will provide steps to address this inequity; and
3) Dr. McCarthy will translate recent innovations in polygenic risk scores to clinical setting and will discuss potential barriers to equal access.

In each of these presentations, the speakers will highlight the challenges and opportunities of polygenic and genetic risk scores, and will specifically address how their use may impact equity in population health. As such this symposium will provide a continuum of different perspectives that a broad audience of epidemiologists may consider when incorporating risk predictions in their own research.

Nilanjee Chatterjee, Johns Hopkins University
“Polygenic Risk Scores for Cancer Prevention”

Genevieve Wojcik, Johns Hopkins University
“Challenges in the Transferability of Polygenic Risk Scores to Diverse Populations”

Anne Marie McCarthy, University of Pennsylvania
“Implementing Polygenic Risk Scores Clinically – Challenges and Opportunities”

Translational social epidemiology: Identifying and evaluating policy interventions that address the health implications of social stratification
Dec 17 @ 1:45 pm – 3:15 pm

Session Co-Chair: Ellicott Matthay, University of California, San Francisco
Session Co-Chair: Holly Elser, Stanford Medical School

The importance of labor, education, and the social safety net for population health inequalities is well-established. This motivates explicit consideration of cause-effect relationships between social systems and health outcomes. It also motivates identification of social policies that have the potential to reduce disparities in population health that arise from the uneven allocation of social services. For this symposium, we emphasize the work of junior researchers (students, postdoctoral scholars, and junior faculty) whose work examines the implications of education, labor, healthcare, criminal justice, and the social safety net for health. Rather than demonstrating the existence of health inequalities, these speakers will present research that evaluates or identifies specific social policies or interventions. Speakers will review the latest evidence, discuss key methodological challenges, and present studies aimed at translating epidemiologic evidence into effective social policies.

Holly Elser, Stanford Medical School
“Paid parental leave and maternal health: An impact evaluation of the San Francisco Paid Parental Leave Ordinance”

Danielle Gartner, Michigan State University
“Assessing the ACA’s impact on racial disparities in health: What is trust responsibility and why does it matter for understanding the health of Native nations?”

Alyssa Mooney, UC Berkeley
“Linking administrative data from criminal justice and health agencies to evaluate policy impacts: Challenges and opportunities”

Laura Rosella, University of Toronto
“Methodological considerations when using secondary data to evaluate the impact of health and social safety net policies in a universal health system”

Catherine Duarte, UC Berkeley
“School Discipline, Education Trajectories, and Health: A Lifecourse Analysis in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Cohort”

Ellicott Matthay, University of California, San Francisco

Addressing substance use from an epi perspective
Dec 17 @ 3:45 pm – 5:15 pm

Session Chair: Maria Parker, Indiana University

Megan Kurz, British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS
“The impact of prescriber networks on opioid agonist treatment retention: A retrospective population-based analysis”

Buyun Liu, University of Iowa
“Association of Marijuana Use History with Current E-cigarette Use among Adults in the United States”

Jana Hirschtick, University of Michigan
“Longitudinal associations between single, dual, and polytobacco use and incident respiratory disease among adults: Findings from the Population Assessment of Tobacco & Health Study (2015-2017)”

Collin Calvert, University of Minnesota
“An Examination of Relationships between Cannabis Legalization and Fatal Motor Vehicle and Pedestrian-Involved Crashes”

Mirinda Gormley, Virginia Commonwealth University
“Association between type of opioid misuse and perceived barriers to accessing treatment for substance use disorders”

Sarah McKetta, Columbia University
“US trends in binge drinking by gender, work status, work prestige, and work structure among adults in midlife, 2006–2018”

Dec 17 @ 3:45 pm – 5:15 pm

Session Chair: Emily Levitan, University of Alabama at Birmingham

Sakurako S. Okuzono, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health
“Early Experiences of Emotional Maltreatment and Favorable Cardiovascular Health in Young Adulthood”

Ludovic Trinquart, Boston University School of Public Health
“Secular trends in the association between newly-diagnosed atrial fibrillation and the excess risk of death”

Edwina Yeung, NICHD
“Conception by Infertility Treatment and Blood Pressure in Early Childhood”

Samantha Parker, Boston University School of Public Health
“Preterm Birth and Subsequent Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Black Women”

Pauline Mendola, University at Buffalo
“Acute ambient temperature changes and risk of cardiovascular events among low-risk women associated with singleton delivery”

Xing Gao, University of California, Berkeley
“Longitudinal Association between Residential Segregation and Incident Hypertension: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis”

Global Health: Evidence at the Intersection of Data and Local Norms
Dec 17 @ 3:45 pm – 5:15 pm

Session Chair: Fasil Tekola-Ayele, NIH

Jade Benjamin-Chung, University of California, Berkeley
“Epidemiology and risk factors of child stunting in low-resource settings: new insights from pooled analyses of 31 longitudinal cohorts and over 62,000 children”

Jingyuan Xiao, Yale University
“Association between parental preterm birth and low birth weight and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk in their offspring: A population-based multigenerational cohort study in Denmark”

Kathryn M. Barker, University of California, San Diego
“Patriarchal norms and intimate partner violence in India: The use of national and state-level data to examine temporal and spatial patterning and associations”

Ariadne Rivera-Aguirre, NYU School of Medicine
“Impact of Marijuana Legalization in Uruguay on Use of Other Substances Among the General Population”

Abdullah Al-Taiar, Old Dominion University
“Vitamin D deficiency: Real Public Health Problem or Measurement Issue”

Injuries/Violence: Novel Approaches to Consequential Questions
Dec 17 @ 3:45 pm – 5:15 pm

Session Chair: Annette Adams, Kaiser Permanente

Christopher McCort, Columbia University
“The Effects of Age and Time on Risk of Violent Crime Associated with Driving Under the Influence”

Erin Erwin, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute
“The modifying effect of sex/gender on police reporting patterns pre- and post-#MeToo: An investigation of male and female survivors of sexual assault”

Christopher Morrison, Columbia University
“Ridesharing and Motor Vehicle Crashes in New York City: A Spatial Ecological Case-Crossover Study of Trip-Level Data”

Miriam Haviland, University of Washington
“Association between minimum age handgun purchase and possession laws and homicides perpetrated by youth 18-20 years old”

Haylea Hannah, UnityPoint Health – DSM
“Applying Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs) to Analytic Criminology: A Framework for Causal Inference”

Andrew J. MacGregor, McGill University
“Combat Injury, Symptom Profiles, and Self-Rated Health in U.S. Military Personnel”

Occupation: an opportunity for impactful epidemiology.
Dec 17 @ 3:45 pm – 5:15 pm

Session Chair: Ghassan Hamra, Johns Hopkins University

Natalie Troke, University of Toronto
“Acute Myocardial Infarction in Ontario Workers: Findings from an application of the Occupational Disease Surveillance System”

Suzanne Dufault, University of California, Berkeley
“The impact of (forced) job separation on self-injury mortality in a cohort of autoworkers; application of a novel causal approach”

Sukhdeep Kaur, University of California, Berkeley
“Investigating the impact of job insecurity and managerial status on sleep index using longitudinal population-based data”

John R. Haight, University of Washington
“Impact of early opioid prescribing practices on long-term disability among injured workers in Washington State”

Sadie Costello, University of California, Berkeley
“Metalworking Fluids and Cancer Mortality from 1941 to 2015 in a US Autoworker Cohort”

On non-casual causality: networks, mediation, generalizability & more
Dec 17 @ 3:45 pm – 5:15 pm

Session Chair: Laura Balzer, University of Massachusetts

Margarita Moreno-Betancur, University of Melbourne
“Data-adaptive methods for high-dimensional mediation analysis: Application to a randomised trial of tuberculosis vaccination”

Kevin Josey, Colorado School of Public Health
“Extending inferences of experimental results with entropy balancing”

Sarah E. Robertson, Brown University
“Extending Inferences from a Cluster Randomized Trial to a Target Population”

Paul N. Zivich, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
“Examining the utility of targeted maximum likelihood estimation for network data”

Mats Julius Stensrud, Harvard School of Public Health
“New estimands for conditional causal effects”

Recent Developments in HIV and STI Research
Dec 17 @ 3:45 pm – 5:15 pm

Session Chair: Chanelle Howe, Brown University

Angela Bengtson, Brown University
“Initial HIV treatment with efavirenz and risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviors: transporting results from trials to routine care”

Nguyen K. Tran, Drexel University
“Modeling Pre- and Post-Prophylactic Doxycycline in Preventing Syphilis Infection Among Urban Men Who Have Sex with Men in the Context of Condom Use”

Tiffany L. Breger, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
“All-cause mortality under modeled interventions on substance use among HIV-positive women in the United States, 1998 – 2017”

Catherine Lesko, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
“Variation in estimated viral suppression associated with the definition of viral suppression used”

Emily Learner, CDC
“Evaluation of Enhanced Gonorrhea Partner Services in Two Jurisdictions in the US, 2018”

Rachel S. Gruver, Columbia University
“Cognitive development, literacy and math achievement in 6-8-year-old children with HIV, children HIV-exposed but uninfected, and children HIV-unexposed”

Social Epidemiology: Gender Inequity
Dec 17 @ 3:45 pm – 5:15 pm

Session Chair: Theresa Osypuk, University of Minnesota

Chrystelle Kiang, Emory University
“Are there gender inequities in editorial decisions by EPIDEMIOLOGY?”

Julia Simard, Stanford University
“Evidence of diagnostic bias by sex from a randomized experiment of U.S. rheumatologists”

Nicky Tettamanti, Columbia University
“Adherence to Gender-Typical Behavior as a Determinant of Occupational Health: Gender and Occupational Differences in Associations Between Gender Adherence and C-Reactive Protein in a Nationally Representative Cohort”

Afshin Vafaei, Queen’s University
“A Systematic Review of Methods Used to Study Intersections of Sex and Social Circumstances on Older Adults’ Health”

Ester Chung, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
“The relationship between maternal adverse childhood experiences and child physical and socioemotional development in rural Pakistan”

Felice Le-Scherban, Drexel University
“Are there birth cohort effects in socioeconomic disparities in child obesity?”

Women’s Health
Dec 17 @ 3:45 pm – 5:15 pm

Session Chair: Jean Wactawski-Wende, University at Buffalo

Sonia M. Grandi, McGill University
“The role of sex-specific risk factors for the prediction of cardiovascular disease in women of reproductive age”

Ashley M. Geczik, National Cancer Institute
“Tubal ligation, hysterectomy, and serum androgen and estrogen metabolism among postmenopausal women in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study”

Angela M. Malek, Medical University of South Carolina
“Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy and Racial/Ethnic Differences in Risk of Incident Kidney Disease Five Years Following Delivery”

Anna K. Poon, Harvard University
“Child abuse and adult cardiovascular disease: mediation by post-traumatic stress disorder and depression”

Zoe Cairncross, University of Calgary
“Is infertility associated with an increased risk of future cardiovascular disease in females?”

Plenary Session 3
Dec 18 @ 8:00 am – 9:45 am

Session Chair: Martha Werler, Boston University

Kenneth Rothman Career Accomplishment Award Winner
Godfrey Oakley, Emory University

Carol J. Rowland Hogue Mid-Career Award Winner
Katherine Keyes, Columbia University

Marshall Joffe Epidemiologic Methods Research Award Winner
Elizabeth Stuart, Johns Hopkins University

Brian MacMahon Early Career Award Winner
Elizabeth Rose Mayeda, University of California, Los Angeles

Noel Weiss and Tom Koepsell Excellence in Education Award Winner
Matthew Fox, Boston University

Documentation status, human rights, and the role of epidemiology in the immigration debate
Dec 18 @ 10:15 am – 11:45 am

Session Co-Chair: Christine Gray, Duke University
Session Co-Chair: Marissa Seamans, University of California, Los Angeles

Near-daily headlines about immigration suggest that it is one of the greatest challenges facing countries across the globe. In the United States, undocumented persons have become a particular target of immigration policies. As leaders and communities grapple with issues ranging from protection to equity to humanitarian crises, the role of epidemiology in addressing this challenge must be clarified. Our goal is to bring together speakers with diverse expertise to engage this important topic.

Speakers will discuss emerging research and policy implications as it pertains to immigration, focusing on the undocumented population in the U.S. Discussions will highlight health consequences related to documentation status, including the role of a human rights framework in addressing health consequences of documentation status. Speakers will pose critical questions and cast a vision for how epidemiology can inform immigration policies that are among the most consequential social issues of the 21st century.

Lynne Messer, OHSU-PSU
“The Hispanic Paradox revisited – quantifying the effect on pregnancy outcomes of being an undocumented Mexican woman in the United States”

Sarah Andrea, University of Washington
“Structural racism isn’t so black and white: are inequities in pregnancy outcomes for undocumented Mexican women driven by stratification into disadvantaged neighborhoods?”

Jasmine Aqua, Freedom University
“Education and Health are Human Rights: Freedom University’s Fight for Undocumented Youth”

Arijit Nandi, McGill University

Epidemiologic methods for applied research: Answering important public health questions that are not causal
Dec 18 @ 10:15 am – 11:45 am

Session Co-Chair: Catherine Lesko, Johns Hopkins University
Session Co-Chair: Matthew Fox, Boston University

Epidemiology has been called “the basic science of public health” and has been defined as the study of the “distribution and determinants of diseases and health states in human populations.” Academic epidemiology has tended to emphasize methods for studying the “determinants of disease”: answering clinical questions and identifying effects of interventions. The implication is that answering questions about the “distribution of disease” is intuitive and straightforward, yet the methods challenges inherent in this research can be quite complex. In this session, we will highlight sophisticated epidemiologic analyses that answer important applied public health questions. Nested in each speaker’s talk will be some discussion of the similarities and differences between “academic” and “applied” research and in particular the relative emphasis placed on different sources of bias as a threat to inference (for example, adjustment for confounder control versus dealing with missing data or measurement error as a source of information bias) and relative importance of adhering to a strict “causal” framework in designing studies.

Each speaker will present for 10-12 minutes, leaving 18-30 minutes for questions and audience discussion.

Catherine Lesko, Johns Hopkins University
“Single-sample biases: Describing the natural course in the presence of measurement error, missing data, loss to follow-up, and competing risks”

Matthew Fox, Boston University
“Smart supplemental data collection: Designing validation/tracing studies to account for loss to follow-up and competing risks when describing the HIV care continuum in South Africa”

Magdalena Cerda, NYU Langone Health
“Working in quicksand: evaluating the impact of prescription opioid policies on opioid overdoses when exposure and outcome definitions are evolving and context matters”

Elizabeth Cromwell, University of Washington
“Dealing with sparse data: Using detailed spatial estimates for decision making in the context of Neglected Tropical Disease programs”

Lauren Tanz, North Carolina Department of Public Health
“To know where to go you need to know where you are: Piecing together surveillance data for situational awareness in the opioid overdose epidemic”

Fausto Bustos Carillo, University of California at Berkeley
“Casual causal inference: the role of risk factor analyses in infectious disease outbreak response”

Got multiple exposure troubles? How causal inference and machine learning can help
Dec 18 @ 10:15 am – 11:45 am

Session Co-Chair: Jessie Buckley, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
Session Co-Chair: Alexandra White, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences

Epidemiologists across substantive subject areas are increasingly adopting methods to characterize the health effects of multiple correlated exposures, or mixtures, due to interest in potential joint effects and concerns about co-exposure confounding. Methods development in this area has led to extensions of older methods as well as new approaches designed to answer questions about how exposure mixtures affect health. This symposium will highlight recent advancements in the area of multiple exposure research with a focus on how causal inference and machine learning methods can be utilized to better address these research questions.

We will begin with a discussion of the target parameters for research on multiple exposures, followed by a comparison of results across a variety of established methods, and ending with presentations of several novel applications of machine learning and causal inference approaches to multiple exposure studies.

Throughout the symposium, we will use Poll Everywhere to facilitate interactive audience participation. Specifically, we will address the following key questions via live polling and a panel Q&A discussion:
1) What multiple exposure questions can causal inference and machine learning approaches address?
2) Are causal inference and machine learning techniques an improvement over previous methods?
3) Do benefits of these approaches outweigh difficulties of implementation and interpretation?

Jennifer Ahern, University of California, Berkeley
“Target parameters for effects of mixtures”

Marianthi-Anna Kioumourtzoglou, Columbia University
“A comparison of different mixtures methods to study the link between persistent organic pollutants and leukocyte telomere length”

Youssef Oulhote, University of Massachusetts, Amherst
“Beyond variable importance measures: Interpreting ensemble learning methods for multiple exposures”

Alexander Keil, UNC Chapel Hill & NIEHS
“Using Bayesian causal thinking to generate actionable results from exposure mixture data”

Jeanette Stingone, Columbia University
“Can data-driven causal discovery methods inform our studies of multiple exposures?”

Policy-Relevant Epidemiology and State Violence: Policing, Mass Incarceration, and Immigration Detention
Dec 18 @ 10:15 am – 11:45 am

Session Co-Chair: Abby Cartus, University of Pittsburgh
Session Co-Chair: Seth Prins, Columbia University

Over the past decade, epidemiologists and public health practitioners have begun to document the public health consequences of mass incarceration and policing in the United States, clearly linking state violence to population health. In addition to this research, schools of public health have integrated coursework, symposia, and conferences on state violence into their regular offerings. The results are clear: state violence creates and perpetuates persistent health disparities along lines of class, race, national origin, gender, and sexuality. But what is epidemiology’s role in confronting the health effects of state violence? What if the current policy space only permits collaboration with agencies engaging in state violence? Should we work with them “from the inside,” support social movements for decarceration and abolition fighting for non-reformist reforms “from the outside,” or chart a middle path? The proposed symposium will grapple with these questions by featuring trans-disciplinary empirical research at the intersection of social science and public health. The goal of the symposium is to critically engage with calls for consequential epidemiology by exploring different perspectives on maximizing population health in the context of state violence.

Zinzy Bailey, University of Miami
“Structural Racism of State-Sanctioned Violence”

Justin Feldman, NYU Langone
“When Epidemiologic Surveillance Becomes Police Surveillance: The Case of Weapons-Related Injuries”

Seth Prins, Columbia University
“The Criminalization of Youth: Public Health Ramifications of the School-To-Prison Pipeline”

Carl Williams, Water Protector Legal Collective

The development of the ‘test-negative’ study design for monitoring vaccine effectiveness
Dec 18 @ 10:15 am – 11:45 am

Session Co-Chair: Kylie Ainslie, Imperial College London
Session Co-Chair: Ben Cowling, Hong Kong University

The test-negative design (TND) is a variation of the case-control study design, in which the same clinical case definition is used for enrollment of both cases and controls. Laboratory testing is subsequently used to distinguish which patients were cases and which were controls. An important advantage of this approach is the efficiency of enrolling cases and controls in the same location with the same case definition, thereby assuring that they have arisen from the same source population and reducing potential selection biases due to differential healthcare-seeking behavior.

Since first being used to assess influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) in 2005, TND studies have become the most popular design for assessing annual influenza VE. In addition to influenza, the TND has been used for many years to measure pneumococcal VE, and has more recently been applied to evaluate vaccines for rotavirus, cholera, and meningococcus. Because of the benefits of the TND design, it has been adopted into public health practice quickly and before careful consideration of the underlying assumptions and potential sources of bias. Recently, a number of studies have been reported to validate and characterize the TND. This symposium will focus on the development of the TND, and the speakers will share current research on this study design including the potential for biases to affect VE estimation, applications to different diseases, and important considerations in design and analysis of data.

Kylie Ainslie, Imperial College London
“Overview of the test-negative design and how to control for bias and confounding”

Ben Cowling, Hong Kong University
“How the test-negative design is used for different vaccines, and the potential for a test-negative design ‘platform'”

Ben Lopman, Emory University
“Test-negative design for assessing rotavirus vaccines”

Marc Lipsitch, Harvard University
“Waning vaccine effectiveness in the test-negative design: real or apparent?”

Unpacking Decreases in US Life Expectancy
Dec 18 @ 10:15 am – 11:45 am

Session Co-Chair: Meredith Shiels, National Cancer Institute
Session Co-Chair: Renee Gindi, CDC

Despite decades of success in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases in the U.S., sustained decreases in life expectancy have been observed for the first time since 1993. The increases in life expectancy seen over the past 30 years had primarily been driven by reductions in death rates among older men and women, but detailed analyses reveal sustained increases in death rates in 25-49-year-old non-Hispanic white men and women over the past two decades. These increases can be attributed in part to increasing death rates due to certain causes of death, notably drug overdose deaths, suicide and alcohol-related liver disease. A leveling off in the rate of cardiovascular disease deaths has also contributed to the life expectancy decrease in some groups. The proposed symposium will focus on disaggregating the overall mortality increase in the US to describe the demographic groups most impacted and the causes of death driving these trends. In addition to describing the trends, speakers will be invited to give insight into the underlying causes of these increases, and opportunities for prevention.

Meredith Shiels, National Cancer Institute
“Diverging Trends in Mid-Life Mortality Rates in the US”

Brandon Marshall, Brown University
“A Tale of Two Crises: Untangling the Social and Corporate Determinants of Overdose in the United States”

Katherine Keyes, Columbia University
“Increases in Suicide in the US: How Changes in Media and News Reporting Contribute to Increases in Suicide Contagion, and How to Disrupt the Cycle for Prevention”

Tiffany Powell-Wiley, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
“Trends in Premature Cardiovascular Mortality in the United States: The Role of Interventions to Address Social Determinants of Health”

Renee Gindi, National Center for Health Statistics
“Health, United States as an exploratory tool to examine nationally representative trends”

Mentoring Graduate Students and Early Career Scholars from Underrepresented Groups: Mentor and Mentee Perspectives
Dec 18 @ 12:00 pm – 1:00 pm

Session Co-Chair: Dayna Johnson, Emory University
Session Co-Chair: Hoda Abdel Magid, Stanford University
Session Co-Chair: Mahasin Mujahid, University of California, Berkeley

The proposed professional development session will discuss effective strategies for mentorship of graduate students, post-doctoral fellows, and early career scholars from underrepresented backgrounds. We will address both practical and conceptual aspects of the mentor and mentee relationship at both the pre and post-doctoral training well as early career level. This session will include topics such as unconscious bias, microaggressions and ideas around what it means to be the only one, as well as providing appropriate and critical feedback necessary for success. We will shed light on various approaches aimed at fostering positive and effective mentorship, mentoring style, and provide feedback for how to interact with mentees and mentors from different backgrounds. Mentors and mentees will learn from case studies, scenarios exploring a variety of situations that illustrate strategies for mentorship across difference. Practical suggestions will include funding mechanisms aimed at increasing diversity and inclusion, the research group welcome letter, strategies for skill development, and celebration options to foster research group communities. Dynamic presenters across career levels will share insights about their mentorship experiences in Epidemiology and/or Public Health. This session will also involve lots of dynamic interactions between the participants and the panel members. There will be ample time dedicated to questions from the audience.

When Life Gets in the Way of Work/Failure Stories
Dec 18 @ 12:00 pm – 1:00 pm

Session Chair: Daniel Westreich, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

Katherine Keyes, Columbia University
Magdalena Cerda, NYU Langone
Matthew Fox, Boston University
Onyebuchi Arah, University of California, Los Angeles

Diversity, inclusion, and artificial intelligence: Challenges for population health
Dec 18 @ 10:15 pm – 11:45 pm

Session Chair: Geetanjali Datta, Cedar Sinai Medical Center Department of Medicine and the Research Center for Health Equity

“Artificial Intelligence (AI) is defined by the Merriam-Webster dictionary as “the capability of a machine to imitate intelligent human behavior.” Among its many perceived virtues, AI is often seen as a boon to streamlined prediction in our fast-paced world. As Artificial Intelligence is increasingly being used by health systems and social institutions to assist in decision making, it is becoming evident that AI algorithms can be flawed and mirror biased human behavior. As such, there have been calls to improve oversight to ensure the use of AI does not propagate inequalities. This symposium, submitted on behalf of the SER Diversity and Inclusion Committee, aims to bring together experts in artificial intelligence and health researchers utilizing AI to discuss how historic and existing social biases are reflected in AI algorithms, and what diversity and inclusion considerations we should make as we integrate AI-based analyses in our work. The participants will address the following questions: 1) How might artificial intelligence sustain and augment issues involving diversity and inclusion? 2) How can we improve the quality of the data we collect to limit these biases? and 3) How can we better train existing data to avoid perpetuating inequalities through our analyses?”

Irene Chen, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
“Diagnosing Sources of Unfairness in Supervised Algorithms”

Rediet Abebe, Harvard Society of Fellows
“Data Inequalities and Access to Information”

Adam Kalai, Microsoft Research New England
“What are the Biases in My Word Embedding”

Ashley Naimi, University of Pittsburgh
“Training Fair Algorithms: Considerations for Prediction and Causal Inference”

David Rehkopf, Stanford University

An introduction to transporting treatment effects from randomized clinical trials to clinical practice
Jan 8 @ 12:00 pm – 2:00 pm

Session Chair: Jennifer Lund, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are considered the gold standard for assessing efficacy of new therapies and are required for regulatory approval. However, patients enrolled on trials are often not representative of patients in whom treatment will ultimately be delivered in clinical practice. When response to therapy varies across subgroups, differences between trial and clinical populations can contribute to the “efficacy-effectiveness gap” – where a treatment’s efficacy in a trial differs from its effectiveness in clinical practice. Methods for generalizability and transportability can help bridge this gap. These methods combine RCT and clinical practice data to generate evidence that directly addresses therapy effectiveness in target populations. Such approaches leverage the internal validity of RCTs with the external validity of clinical practice data to better inform real-world decision-making.

In this workshop, we will provide an overview of methods for generalizing and transporting treatment effects from RCTs to defined target populations. Participants will receive SAS and R code to combine publicly available RCT and real-world data. Participants will gain an understanding of the theory underlying external validity. Using graphics and quantitative metrics, participants will evaluate the suitability of and compare effect estimates transported to various target populations.

This workshop requires an introductory level of epidemiology training and is relevant for all interested in expanding their epidemiological toolkit. This workshop may be of particular interest to those focused on causal inference methods, pharmacoepidemiology, and comparative effectiveness research.

An Introduction to R for Epidemiologists
Jan 11 @ 12:00 pm – 4:00 pm

Session Chair: Steve Mooney, University of Washington

This workshop will introduce participants to the R statistical computing platform for use in epidemiologic analysis. It is not intended to transform untested novices into R wizards in a mere half-day; rather, the goal will be to introduce the conceptual underpinnings, tools, and external resources that participants will need to overcome barriers to using R that they might encounter on their own, later. The material is designed for epidemiologists who are already familiar performing analyses using other statistical software (e.g. SAS/Stata/SPSS) but who have no first-hand experience with the R language. More specifically, the course will cover 1) basic R syntax, 2) importing data, 3) constructing, cleaning, and manipulating data objects, 4) loading and using external packages, 5) simple statistical modeling, and 6) graphics. Participants must bring a laptop with R installed; the instructor will be available by email beforehand to assist with R installation if difficulties arise.

Scientific Manuscript Writing for Peer Review Journals: Communicating Results of Studies
Jan 15 @ 12:00 pm – 4:00 pm

Session Chair: Moyses Szklo, JHSPH

In this half-day workshop, participants will critically review a paper as initially submitted to the American Journal of Epidemiology, but not yet published. The paper will be sent to participants in advance of the workshop for their critical review. During the workshop, a presentation will be made regarding some of the main points to be considered when preparing or reviewing a manuscript. Small-group work will follow the presentation so that participants can compare their reviews and prepare a consolidated list of critical comments on the paper. Each group will designate a leader who will present the group’s review of the paper to the whole group of participants. At the end of the workshop, students will receive copies of the manuscript’s AjE reviews, the initial editorial decision, and the final accepted version of the paper.

Confounding control for estimating causal effects: Looking under the hood
Jan 22 @ 12:00 pm – 4:00 pm

Session Co-Chair: Nicolle Gatto, Pfizer Inc.
Session Co-Chair: Ulka Campbell, Pfizer Inc.

This workshop introduces concepts of causal inference and confounding control for causal effect estimation. We will introduce potential outcomes, and articulate the conceptual basis and assumptions for two g-methods – standardization via g-computation and inverse probability weighting. Starting with a simple point-treatment setting we will explore how these methods estimate a causal effect, comparing them to more conventional techniques such as multivariable regression and propensity score control. We will then build to the more complex scenario of time-dependent confounding. Participants will learn how to apply these methods in SAS and R using an observational dataset with the primary goal of unpacking any “black boxes” to clarify the links among the causal effect of interest, the mechanics of these g-methods, and the programming code.