Ian Shrier is a practicing sport medicine physician with doctoral training in physiology and post-doctoral training in epidemiology. His substantive and methodological work in injury epidemiology and causal inference are a result of questions arising from his clinical practice. This symposium will address the patient-relevant issue about risk factors for recurrent events (e.g. recurrent injuries, fetal loss). More specifically, we will review some basic assumptions that are often violated through commonly applied analytical techniques, provide insight into some new methodological advances, and discuss on-going challenges that still need to be addressed.